The comparative sociology of Louis Dumont (1982) explained the rise of modern inworldly individualism as the result of the transformation, initiated mainly by a changing Church/State relationship since the eighth century, of the outworldly individualism of early Christianity. In this paper the question is asked whether a similar transformation took place in Eastern Orthodox Christianity. The enquiry, which examines Orthodox monachism and the Church/State relationship in Byzantium and in Russia, further the Russian Old Believers, the Slavophiles and Populists, arrives at the conclusion that Eastern Orthodoxy has remained a tradition of holism and of outworldly individualism, of 'integral personality' and of individualism as the lower path to salvation. Modern individualism has no cultural basis in this tradition. Buss Andreas. The Individual in the Eastern Orthodox Tradition / L'Individu dans la tradition orthodoxe orientale. In: Archives de sciences sociales des religions, n°91, 1995. pp. 41-65.