The very heart of human rights is a fundamental right: freedom of conscience, the corollary of which is necessary tolerance. We will try to outline the progress of this ideal — from the 19th to the 17th century from Nicolas de Cues to Locke — not in an idealistic and abstract way, but by showing how the authors’ thoughts are linked to the vagaries and movements of the state of the world and society whose challenges need to be addressed. Three strokes are distinguished at the dawn of modern times marked by the breakdown — geographical and religious — of the unity of the medieval world: a more specifically philosophical stage, a more strictly ethical and religious moment, and finally the deployment — essentially with the definition of a right understood as natural — of a political doctrine (in the full sense of the term) of tolerance. Michelis Pintacuda Fiorella. For a story of the idea of tolerance from the 17th to the 17th century. In: Religious History and philosophy Review, Year 65, April-June 1985, pp. 131-151.