José Saramago (1922-2010), Literature Nobel Prize in 1998, is a Portuguese writer whose work has a universal reach and thanks to the use, in particular, of a figure, allegory. Germany Romanticists slighted over this figure rather than the symbol for a long time. José Saramago has used this writing feature which was really necessary to create his fictional universe and hence for the transmission of his message. To this writer, the allegorical construction is an invitation to the awakening of the contemporary man. It serves as a support to cause an awareness and also a warning to a world that is revealed to be increasingly immersed in unreason. This thesis conducts a reflection on the evolution of allegory in José Saramago, his job, his dialogue with the arts and other figures and their importance in the work of this Portuguese writer. His goal is to show the different ways the allegory operates in the construction of this author's work of meaning and to what extent it is essential in the transmission of ideological systems to the reader. For this, he presents theories of Walter Benjamin as well as other nearby theorists, such as Francine Wild, Éléonore Reverzy, Tzvetan Todorov, Bernard Vouilloux, Flávio Kothe that have developed in turns research on allegory. Literary theory, in our work, goes side by side with the hermeneutics of allegory, myth, symbol, metaphor, in order to better understand the overall meaning of Saramago's work.