The communication systems used in civil aviation are subject to an ever increasing capacity demand because of the air traffic growth and the development of new services. In this context, the AANETs (Aeronautical Ad-hoc NETworks) are studied as an innovative communication solution that would complement existing systems. An AANET is an ad hoc network in which the nodes are aircraft. It makes use of direct inter-aircraft communications to transmit data beyond the radio range by using a chain of relays. The objective of this thesis is to propose a solution to two complex problematics present in AANETs : the channel access management and the routing. Previous studies have shown the feasibility of such networks, and a communication architecture based on CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) has been proposed in the literature. The CDMA allows concurrent receptions between users. However, no spreading code assignment method have been specified. In order to solve this problem on large scale networks such as AANETs, we propose to improve an existing method : the RP-CDMA (Random Packet CDMA). We then describe the innovative routing protocol that we have designed: NoDe-TBR (Node Density TBR). In the TBR (Trajectory Based Routing) paradigm, the packets are forwarded along a geographical path (geopath), specified by the sender. We specify through NoDe-TBR a method to compute these paths. In this protocol, the geopaths are computed as geodesics which take into account the actual node density. This approach has been selected because it should have the benefits of geographic routing (very low overhead) while being robust to the specific conditions encountered in AANETs (mobility, uneven aircraft density). To assess the performances of our propositions, we have developed models for the simulator Omnet++. We have used an approach based on the replay of actual aircraft trajectories in order to take into account the variety of constraints applied to the movements of the aircraft. The simulated data traffic represents bidirectional communications between aircraft and ground stations. Our simulations shows that the modification we propose for RP-CDMA improve the overall performances of the system. The simulations results also shows that NoDe-TBR outperforms more classical routing methods in terms of reachability and delay, while generating less overhead.