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Multi-paradigmatic bases of human training: Contributions of trans-personal, intercultural and spirituality paradigms for education in Brazil and France

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The aim of this research is to analyze how the transpersonal content experience and the expressions of spirituality in the Brazil-France intercultural context can broaden the comprehension of the process of multidimensional human formation, in order to understand the dilemmas of theorizing and educational practice at the present time. The theoretical framework was anchored in the transpersonal, spirituality and intercultural paradigms, and in studies around human formation. We carried out three complementary studies from the perspective of "cross-fertilization" using different methods. The study 1 aimed to understand the vision of the Brazilian and French professors-researchers about the contributions of the transpersonal and spirituality paradigms to the processes of human formation. This study was conducted with professors-researchers in Brazil and France, five from each site, based on the constructivist paradigm and the intuitive transpersonal investigative approach. From the lexicometric analysis, we identified that the multiparadigmatic perspectives of human formation were different for the two groups studied. For the French group, we identified the epistemicontological and epistemic-methodological axes, while the epistemological axes and the transpersonal integrative approach were detected for the Brazilian group. From the phenomenological analysis we found 18 regions of meaning that converge to four open categories: Contextual Tessitura; Dimensional Mosaic; Contours of Formation and Paradigmatic Axes, generating a network of meanings. These categories constitute with the "gift", the pillars of the multidimensional model of human formation that we defend. The study 2 aimed at adapting and validating of the Expressions of the Spirituality Inventory - Revised (ESI-R) for France, developed by Douglas MacDonald, in order to compare the results of this validation with those of Brazil. We adopted the integral transpersonal approach based on the post-positivist paradigm. We used the ESI-R applied to a sample of 209 French individuals. We performed descriptive statistical analysis, the exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses and the statistical implicative. We compared these results with those of the Brazilian sample of 492 participants. We verified that the adaptation of the ESI-R Inventory was validated for use in France, demonstrating the equivalence between French and Brazilian samples. The study 3 aimed the delimitation of the intercultural paradigm contours performed in the context of a Franco-Brazilian personal experience, in order to give support to the "research-self-formation". Based on the transformative paradigm, the organic transpersonal approach was adopted, using the autobiographical report. From this thesis’ author’ intercultural experience, the data were analyzed using a hermeneutical approach. The main results in the discourse obtained from this intercultural experience point to the absence of the "body" in the educational process, the contradictions present as an instrument for the development of human formation and the importance of empathy in the teacher-student relationship. We chose to develop these three studies as integral and interdependent parts of the understanding of our object of study. We use multiple paradigms, several methods and we were able to demonstrate the complexity of the phenomenon of human formation that cannot be reduced to a single dimension.

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