Our team optimized the formulation of implantable medical devices for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. To that end, we based our work on nanostructured implants, either natural or synthetic, made in the laboratory by electrospinning process, to mimic bone extracellular matrix, and hydrogel of alginate/hyaluronic acid to mimic cartilage extracellular matrix. First, concerning bone regeneration, we optimized the formulation of a nanostructured scaffold composed of natural chitosan to enhance bone regeneration. This was made possible by doping this implantable medical device with silica nanoparticles, offering this nanocomposite better mechanical properties, and excellent biocompatibility with host tissue. Another study with the same aim allowed elaborating a new cell seeding strategy, to seed these implantable medical devices with cell microtissues instead of single cells, offering higher mineralisation efficiencies within the implant. Consequently, for the regeneration of the osteochondral unit, we proposed two compartmented and hybrid implants comprising mesenchymal stem cells microtissues. Those implants are made of a hydrogel containing the stem cells, allowing the regeneration of cartilage, and a membrane, either natural (collagenic Bio-Gide®) or synthetic (electrospun polycaprolactone) equipped with nanoreservoirs (technology patented by the laboratory) of osteogenic growth factor (BMP-7) for the regeneration of osseous stand (the subchondral bone) of the bone-cartilage unit. Finally, to study the improvement in vascular recruitment, we proposed a new strategy combining the modification of an implantable device with angiogenic growth factor (VEGF), prior to its sequential seeding with mesenchymal cells “human osteoblasts” and human endothelial cells (HUVECs). This strategy allowed higher recruitment and structuration of endothelial cells within the implant. To conclude, the implant optimisation strategies developed in the laboratory will certainly allow proposing in the near future new combined Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs) and Implantable Medical Device for bone and cartilage regeneration, in particular in the field of osteoarticular regenerative nanomedicine.