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Urban energy transition from 19th to 21th century : from biomass to fossil and fissil nergy in Paris (France)




Increasing urban natural resource consumption and particularly fossil energy consumption is one of the important factors of global environment alteration. To understand the socioecological transition process for the city, we characterize it as a natural resource dependent system in material and ecological terms. Cities mobilize a technical system to draw the external natural resource. Therefore, externality is a fundamental character of urban metabolism. We focus in this work on the relationship between the energy demand of the city, the evolution of the urban and extraurban energy supply system, and the energy resource supply area of Paris. We used energy and material flow analysis (MEFA) to evaluate environmental pressure driven by city's energy consumption, urban metabolism. MEFA aims to evaluate social metabolism, therefore energy demand including both the energy for technical system and bioenergy for food and forage provision for a society. Particularly, total energy requirement (TER) refers ta primary energy consumption, an indicator to evaluate the environmental pressure. Furthermore, we try to view the energy demand for the technical energy increase of the city in parallel with its energy supply area tor three dates chosen during the 19th and 21th centuries.

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