This work, whose research field concerns the French novel of Africa south of the Sahara, is to analyze the direction of the trajectory of the African intellectual, fifties to the present. It is precisely to see how African fiction productions of the last sixty years represent the situation of the intellectual in African society, through its developments and prospects. What French-language African novel role has historically devoted to the character of the intellectual and what are the new modes of action and ideas productions today contribute to strengthening the role? At the time, Africa, public speaking increasingly of the bankruptcy or the "death of the African intellectual," we found it necessary to question the novel on this subject, from a kind analytical panorama from 1950 to the 2010s, to observe how the African literary fiction has long represented the figure of the intellectual representation and how this has evolved over the past decades. Borrowing constantly its theoretical and methodological tools in the sociology of literature, this dissertation examines what happened to the African intellectual and positioning it adopts in the current tour to the African societies globalization. Form of literary history, it has intellectual every time the African continent through its identity and political issues. Beyond its countless failures, the African intellectual is a figure inhabited by an ethic of conviction and responsibility. In this perspective, the crisis of the observable commitment to evolving the intellectual in contemporary African novel, far from being a sign of his "death" imminent, wants it a crisis of change, where old modalities commitment die and new ones seek to hatch.