Arapaima (Arapaima spp. is the largest freshwaters calefish in the world, and an iconic element of the Amazon region. This fish yields high ecological, economic and cultural value to Amazonian ecosystems and people. Whereas in the past arapaima could reach up to 3m long and weigh up to 200kg, currently large specimens rarely exceed 1.5m and 90kg due to overfishing. Since the 2000s, arapaima fishery has been banned in Brazil except under a collaborative management plan approved by the government. Arapaima co-management plans are proliferating throughout the Amazon, and seem to be an important tool for biodiversity conservation, poverty alleviation, and gender equality in fisheries.