This article sets out to present a long-term reflection on Italian antifascism as a transnational movement starting from the experiences of former international volunteers in Spanish Civil War. The biographical approach will offer the possibility to reflect about the connections between, the traumas lived by the volunteers after the Spanish Civil War and their post-war antifascist experience. Just after the end of the Spanish Civil War, most of them were imprisoned in French camps; between 1940 and 1945 a large part of them participated in the resistance movement both in France and Italy and, after 1945, many of them were unable to reintegrate in the Italian society. We will try to understand how the continuous proximity to violence during the decade 1936 – 1945 influenced the difficulties in the reintegration process. My aim is to offer a global reflection, from a social history perspective, both on the transnational nature of the Italian antifascist movement and on the legacies in the post-war period left by the antifascist militancy during the 1930s and the 1940s.