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The civil servant confronted with the official candidacy (1852-1870) -a contribution to a revaluation of the democratic and liberal caesarism-

Thesis

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Disciplines
KeywordsTriple Keywords
Pictures
Iconography
Pictorial representations
Visions
Reality
Ideology
Science, Political
Government
Politics
Political science
Political theory
Administration
Commonwealth, The
Civil government
Political thought
Franchise
Elections
Polls
Electoral politics
Civil liberty
Personal liberty
Emancipation
Liberation
Liberty
Freedom
Acts, Legislative
Legislative enactments
Laws (Statutes)
Enactments, Legislative
Legislative acts
Law
Unconsciousness
Unconscious (Psychology)
Subconsciousness
Salvation
Salvation--Controversial literature
Salvation--Popular works
Autonomy
Self-government
Independence

Abstract

The image of the Second Empire was disgraced for a long time in our national culture. Indeed the French defeat at Sedan, Victor Hugo’s diatribes and the Coup combined to firmly corroborate the dark vision of the period. Yet some historical studies have partly restored it by showing the reality of the liberal mutation in the 1860’s and its particular conception of the universal suffrage. Thus it was also important to focus on the consequences on the Civil Servant and more particularly on his link with the official candidacy, which was one of the characteristics of the Empire. The ideology of Napoleon III consisted in subordinating the existence of the Empire to the victory of the candidate recommended by the Government for each local or national election. Therefore all the “civil servants” had to be subservient to the official candidacy. The manoeuvre was facilitated by two things. Indeed there was no status to protect the civil servants and the public liberties were strictly controlled by the Imperial rule. Yet it was not a complete dependence. The role of the State evolved and the competent civil servants who managed to be vital elements progressively became autonomous people. What is more, the electoral legislation, which conveyed great modern principles connected to voting freedom, began to be applied by the case law of the Legislative Body. Hence the civil servant became torn between the innate necessities to endorse the legitimate candidate and the legal obligations controlled by the Legislative Body.

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