In Spain, the topic of multiculturalism was first linked to migration in connection with the difficulties experienced in school by immigrant’s children, when these were confronted with study plans, educational criteria and everyday dealings which privileged native children. Multiculturalism was thus promoted as one way of facing this discrimination. But, as the term culture (a term already very ambiguous in its everyday use amongst us) was adopted without precising its meaning, cultural differences came to be essentialized and «racialized», as if they signified something common, intangible and indelibly imprinted in those coming from the same country of origin. This could not lead to a good articulation of the specific questions which arise when dealing with cultural differences. The article wishes to progress in this articulation by supporting it on the more precise notion of culture which has traditionally been used by anthropologists.