This article analyses the link between the legitimacy of the State to communicate on sexuality and the constraints on the communication agencies responsible for drawing up campaigns to prevent AIDS at large from 1989 to 2009. The article is based on a doctoral thesis entitled ‘Public Communication and Forms of Contemporary Governability of the State. The case of homosexuality in AIDS prevention campaigns in France (1987-2007)’. He presented the guidelines for public action in the field of AIDS and their impact on the work of the administration on the one hand and on the communication agencies on the other. The article focuses on three key periods: 1989-1993, during which the French AIDS Agency (AFLS) collaborates with Alice on these campaigns; 1994-1999, during which the French Committee for Health Education (CFES) collaborates with the agency Euro RSCG); 2007-2009, during which the National Institute for Health Prevention and Education collaborates with the Mc Cann Agency. We will see through these three periods that the acquisition of the legitimacy of the state to communicate on sexuality has been accompanied by a blurring of the constraints to represent sexual practices (including homosexuality) in mainstream campaigns.