Potassium (K+) is involved in the regulation of cellular excitability, cell cycle regulation, cell viability, neuroprotection and maintenance of microglial and oligodendrocytic functions. Potassium dysfunction, described in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, may be a potential therapeutic target. The underlying toxic mechanisms of these neurodegenerative pathologies involve oxysterols, which are oxidized cholesterol derivatives, and fatty acids including those associated with peroxisomal metabolism. 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) and tetracosanoic acid (C24:0), often found at increased levels in the brain and plasma of patients with neurodegenerative diseases (Nieman-Pick disease, MS, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and X-ALD) lead to a breakdown of the redox equilibrium leading to neurodegeneration. In this context, it is interesting to determine the possible connection between the lipid environment and potassium homeostasis The in vitro study was carried out on 158N murine oligodendrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. We have shown that the lipotoxicity of 7KC, 24S-OHC and C24:0 implies retention of K+ involving the voltage dependent potassium channels (Kv). These results have shown that inhibition of Kv channels lead to an increase in [K +] i contributing to the cytotoxicity of 7KC, 24S-OHC and C24:0. The retention of K+ induced by oxysterols (7KC and 24S-OHC) would be under the control of Kv3.1b. A clinical study, on plasma of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, revealed a negative correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and K+ concentration. In the J20 mice, a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease, the expression of Kv3.1b and Abcd3 was decreased in the hippocampus and cortex. Overall, the results obtained established relationships between lipotoxicity, peroxisomal metabolism and potassium homeostasis in neurodegeneration and suggest a possible modulation of the expression and activity of kv3.1b in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. So, modulation of Kv3.1 could constitute a new therapeuthic approach against some neurodegenerative diseases.