This work concerns the conditions of elaboration of an anthropological knowledge from the discursive forms of the contemporary novel and the representation of the character which this one sets up. It raises a status of this knowledge by putting these forms in connection with the socio-anthropological context which determines their emergence, referring to the aesthetic phenomenon of its reception and its social significance. So, the theatricality concept indicates a disruption of the novel identity as well as the method by which the character crisis expresses itself, "refiguring" the vision of human being and the society. The dissertation is divided in three parts all in accordance with the triple articulation of the Text socio-anthropological method. The first part’s dealing with the mutual influence between literature and anthropology. With the mimesis concept, that first part shows that the novel proposes its own vision of the human being. The second part localizes two levels of theatricality in the novel: the one that puts the identity of that one in the crisis and the over that re-elaborates the mimesis by representing a character totally split. The third part tries to establish correspondences between this double crisis of the character and human beings.