This work presents the public with the natural and cultural context of Upper Amazonia, highlighting the contribution made by the former peoples of this region to the cosmological construction of the Andean Civilisation. The archaeological evidence of the ancient history of the selvatic peoples is summarised and then the details of one of the first Amazon societies are presented in detail: culture Mayo Chinchipe-Marañón. The obvious conclusion is that the Amazon is not only the largest reserve of the biosphere, but is above all a cultural creation. Human beings have been involved for more than 6000 years in the modification and regeneration of biodiversity. The indomic nature is in fact a cultural landscape, modelled as the social scene of the Amazon peoples.