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Biological control of California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae): spatial and temporal distribution of natural enemies, parasitism levels and climate effects



ID: <http://hdl.handle.net/10251/14794>·DOI: <10.4995/thesis/10251/14794>


California Red Scale (PRC), Aonidiella aurantii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) is considered as a key pest. In eastern Spain, it has spread over the last decades to cover a wide range of citrus fruits. Chemical control is difficult and often followed by recurrent infestations in a short period of time, the emergence of resistance to different products used for their control and the removal of natural enemies in the field. To improve integrated management and the RPS biological control techniques, it is necessary to know the composition of the natural enemies in each climate zone, the fluctuation in their seasonal abundance, the levels of free-riding and predation, as distributed in the plant and how they are affected by climate and climate change. Although much has been studied in the laboratory on parasitoids Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), the main RPS control agents, it is not yet known which combination of natural enemies achieves the best level of control in the field, how free-riding levels vary throughout the year or how parasitoids are distributed and competing in the field for climate. The action of Aphytis, ectoparasitoides, is complemented in many citrus areas by the endoparasitoides Comperiella bifasciata and Encarsia perniciosi (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), which may parasite stories other than Aphytis. Very little is known about the behaviour and biological responses under different climatic conditions of these endoparasitoids. Similarly, the effect of predators on the Scale population has been rarely studied. Currently, A. melinus, a species introduced into eastern Spain and the top competitor, has displaced the native parasitoid A. chrysomphali from warm and dry areas as it can better tolerate warm summer temperatures.

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