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Sexual violence against girls in schools: the problem of sexual harassment in Gabonese schools

Thesis

<http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/67981>
Disciplines
KeywordsTriple Keywords
Populations, Human
Population growth
Population
Human populations
Human population
Individuality
Individuation (Philosophy)
Individuals (Philosophy)
Particulars (Philosophy)
Individuation
Schooling
Instruction
Education of children
Human resource development
Children--Education
Students--Education
Youth--Education
Education
Pedagogy
Education, Primitive
Justice
Injustice
Appearance (Philosophy)
Portraits
Portraiture
Worth
Values
Axiology
Acts, Legislative
Legislative enactments
Laws (Statutes)
Enactments, Legislative
Legislative acts
Law
Ethics, Primitive
Science, Moral
Ethics
Deontology
Morality
Philosophy, Moral
Ethology
Moral philosophy
Morals
Experience
Ontology
Being
Equality
Egalitarianism
Social inequality
Social equality
Inequality
Self-government
Democracy
Reality
Fatalism
Fate and fatalism
Destiny
Western art (Western countries)
Arts, Fine
Fine arts
Iconography
Art, Visual
Arts, Visual
Occidental art
Visual arts
Art
Art, Occidental
Art, Western (Western countries)
Evidence
Proof
Job training
Vocational training
Occupational training
Manpower development and training
Manpower training programs

Abstract

Sexual violence against girls in schools through sexual harassment is almost banalised or even standardised in Gabonese schools. These private violence further disadvantage a school population that is already weakened by a reductive patriarchal society that prefers them to domestic, marital and sometimes degrading work. (GARCEAU, 2003, Finkelhor et al., 2014) The school, which is intended to be a security, equal and neutral environment, thus becomes an anxiogenic environment, unfavourable to studies and replicating all the gender stereotypes conveyed by this discriminatory patriarchate. (Devers et al, 2012; Ne Dour, (2006) No individual should suffer violence because of his or her gender and no education system should be complicit in such injustice. As many countries address the issue of gender-based violence in schools, no research has been carried out so far in Gabon. The phenomenon remains unknown and ignored. (Benabdallah, 2010) The need to take account of the problem in order to improve the Gabonese education system justifies the relevance of this argument. Qualitative research through a field survey and semi-directed interviews with victims and stakeholders has made this phenomenon more visible. The analysis of content using conceptual categories has led to the emergence of the socio school profiles of victims and harasser teachers, both portraits of sexual harassment according to victims and stakeholders. (Paillet and Mucchielli, 2016) She found that the Violentogenic school climate (Debarbieux et al, 2012) in the Gabonese education system favours sexual harassment and that care for victims is insufficient and ineffective. It finds that the basic values of teachers influenced by the patriarcal system give them a hegemonic masculinity (Connell and Messerschimdt, 2015), which encourages them to see girls as women who are able to satisfy their lubric wishes to the detriment of their professional engagement. Sexual harassment perverses teachers’ teaching, teaching and relational practices by inciting them to violate the law, the Gabonese civil service code of ethics and to deviate from the ethical principles of teaching. (Law No 1/2005 of 4 February 2005 laying down the general status of the civil service) The official analysis of the educational experience of victims highlighted the impact of sexual harassment on their educational background. (Mucchielli, 2012) It determines the choice of pathways, jeopardises victims’ chances of success, destroys their school destinies, distorts students’ real intellectual outcomes and levels. This analysis revealed the deterioration of teachers’ interpersonal skills towards victims that encourage absenteeism, school discouragement and early school leaving. An informative analysis of the victims’ educational experience has also revealed that victims do not report for fear of reprisals, but also for fear of being stigmatised, tried and accused inside and outside schools. (Not Dour, 2006) Despite the existence of administrative and criminal sanctions, harasser teachers continue to enjoy impunity due to the lack of reporting, the culture of the amicable settlement that prevails in disadvantaged backgrounds from which most of the victims originate and, above all, the complicit solidarity of the administrative teams in certain establishments concerned. (Devers et al, 2012, Antonowicz, 2010) This is why it is imperative to reaffirm the principle of neutrality, justice, equality and democracy in schools. It is important to raise awareness among the whole school community, resigning families, the relevant administrative and legal bodies in order to combat the phenomenon effectively, efficiently and satisfactorily. To ensure that the Gabonese school can offer a favourable framework in line with the law that guarantees equal access to school for all pupils regardless of sex, social and religious affiliation. (Law No 11/2011 laying down a general approach on education, training and research).

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