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Flow analysis of a set of ornamental chimney caps designed by Antoni Gaudí





Abstract We analyzed theoretically and experimentally the performance of the 19 different ornamental caps of the individual chimneys located on the terrace of Palau Güell (Barcelona, Spain) designed by Antoni Gaudí. This set of chimney caps has wide range of external geometries and different number and shapes of openings. Models of the chimney caps were obtained using photogrammetry and 3D printing. Wind tunnel measurements of the pressure inside the stack pipe connected to the cap were performed for different external and stack flow velocities. Two distinct orientations of the external flow with respect to the chimneys were considered. We derived a simple theoretical model, based on the potential flow theory, to relate the non-dimensional pressure reduction in the stack (chimney draft) with the ratio between the external and stack flow velocities. It has been found that the behavior of the chimneys caps predicted by this model is in agreement with the measurements. It has been found that the performance of the chimneys depends mainly on the number of supports of the conical cover of the cap and it is essentially independent on the shape of the cap and on the number and geometry of the openings located on the cap. These conclusions obtained for this particular set of chimneys can be useful for the design of caps for ornamental or general use.

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