Due to their impact and coverage area, floods and droughts are the most relevant extreme hydroclimatic events in the Amazon. With series from the standardised precipitation index (SPI), events were counted with values above 2.0 (extreme excesses) or below -2.0 (extreme deficit), establishing that these phenomena are more recurrent in the Bolivian Amazon. With socio-economic and biophysical data, the systems exposed to these phenomena and the different degrees of threat to farming systems and the population were identified. When analysing the vulnerability of these systems, it was possible to establish that the drought is greatest in the upper part of the Andean region (Amazonía Boliviana, Peruana and Ecuadorian); in the south, in the sector of the Juruena river basin; in the orient, on a large sector between the catchment areas of Xingu and Tocantins; and in the north, in a small sector corresponding to the upper part of the River Branco. With regard to floods, the greatest vulnerability occurs in a large sector in the Amazon surfacing, in sectors of the Andes stone and in the entire planetary area adjacent to the River Amazonas or its tributaries.