The mezcal, like all artisanal products linked to the territory, assumes properties linked to what has been called ‘terruño’ or ‘terroir’. The history of the drink, its properties, technological processes, tastes and uses are the very history of the territory and of the communities in which the mixture is produced. This work describes the conditions of the moscal production system in the Sierra Sur region of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, and analyses the changes generated by the national and international rise in demand. It was found that the myaholc production system is currently built from territorial sub-systems that make use of the social, cultural and natural resources of the various community centres in the region. In these sub-schemes, the production units are managed under the logic of a rural family production unit for peasant farming. It is thought that the increase in prices paid to producers over recent years can contribute to the generational continuity of artisanal production.