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## The Least Spanning Area of a Knot and the Optimal Bounding Chain Problem

Two fundamental objects in knot theory are the minimal genus surface and the least area surface bounded by a knot in a 3-dimensional manifold. When the knot is embedded in a general 3-manifold, the problems of finding these surfaces were shown to be NP-complete and NP-hard respectively. However, the...

## An overview of mathematical issues arising in the Geometric complexity theory approach to VP v.s. VNP

We discuss the geometry of orbit closures and the asymptotic behavior of Kronecker coefficients in the context of the Geometric Complexity Theory program to prove a variant of Valiant's algebraic analog of the P not equal to NP conjecture. We also describe the precise separation of complexity classe...

## Responsibility for regional waste generation: A single region extended input-output analysis with uni-directional trade flows

International audience This paper uses a regional input-output framework and data derived on waste generation by industry to examine different aspects of regional waste accountability. In addition to estimating a series of industry output-waste coefficients, the paper considers a series of methods f...

## Automatic local Gabor Features extraction for face recognition

We present in this paper a biometric system of face detection and recognition in color images. The face detection technique is based on skin color information and fuzzy classification. A new algorithm is proposed in order to detect automatically face features (eyes, mouth and nose) and extract their...

## On the Tradeoffs of Implementing Randomized Network Coding in Multicast Networks

Randomized network coding (RNC) greatly reduces the complexity of implementing network coding in large-scale, heterogeneous networks. This paper examines two tradeoffs in applying RNC: The first studies how the performance of RNC varies with a node's randomizing capabilities. Specifically, a limited...

## Dynamic thermal performance analysis of two solar air collectors with and without porous media

The paper presents the thermal performance comparison between two types of solar air collectors, with and without porous absorber material. In order to simulate the transient processes which occur in the collectors two mathematical models were developed. Each model consists of a set of time dependen...

## Stochastic approximations for financial risk computations

In this thesis, we investigate several stochastic approximation methods for both the computation of financial risk measures and the pricing of derivatives.As closed-form expressions are scarcely available for such quantities, %and because they have to be evaluated daily, the need for fast, efficient...

## Columns in cellular automata and generalized Rudin–Shapiro sequences

This thesis is at the interface between mathematics and theoretical computer science. In the first part, our main objects are finite automata and cellular automata. While relatively different in nature, it is possible to link both by explicit constructions. More specifically, it is possible to reali...

## Wavelet-Based Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients for Speaker Identification using Hidden Markov Models

To improve the performance of speaker identification systems, an effective and robust method is proposed to extract speech features, capable of operating in noisy environment. Based on the time-frequency multi-resolution property of wavelet transform, the input speech signal is decomposed into vario...

## Towards a relevant dispersion model for urban areas

Flammable and toxic gas dispersion is a key issue when designing the potential consequences of industrial accident. While resulting distances for land use planning are important, models used nowadays are quite simple. It should be reminded that several levels of approach could be used for the cloud...

## Tests of Francis turbines on scale models and on an industrial machine. Influence of the layout of the hoses on various characteristics of the machine

The tests presented differ from the usual acceptance tests in that they allow an analysis of the flow at the wheel outlet. For this analysis, surveys were carried out on a radius at the beginning of the vacuum cleaner. The radial distribution of flow and energy is characterised by coefficients from...

## Identifying Causal Effects in Experiments with Spillovers and Non-compliance

This paper shows how to use a randomized saturation experimental design to identify and estimate causal effects in the presence of spillovers--one person's treatment may affect another's outcome--and one-sided non-compliance--subjects can only be offered treatment, not compelled to take it up. Two d...

## Re-visiting the Distance Coefficient in Gravity Model

This paper revisits the classic gravity model in international trade and reexamines the distance coefficient. As pointed out by Frankel (1997), this coefficient measures the relative unit transportation cost between short distance and long distance rather than the absolute level of average transport...

## Approximate Ergodic Capacity of a Class of Fading 2-user 2-hop Networks

We consider a fading AWGN 2-user 2-hop network where the channel coefficients are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) drawn from a continuous distribution and vary over time. For a broad class of channel distributions, we characterize the ergodic sum capacity to within a constant number...

## Inversion of the divergence and Hodge systems

The main purpose of the present thesis is to study the existence of solutions of underdetermined Hodge systems in “critical” function spaces. The simplest Hodge system is the (single) divergence equation: div u=f,on R^d,(*) where f is a given function and u a vector field. As long as 1 <p< ∞, if f i...

## E pure, if muove!

for several years now, the analysis team of the IREM de Montpellier is interested in the use of graphic calculators. It was therefore of course that, in the second and first modules, we had to make proposals for activities using this tool. And to reflect on the consequences of this use. One example,...

## Index theory for families of G-transversally elliptic operators

The index problem is to calculate the index of an elliptic operator in topological terms. This problem was solved by M. Atiyah and I. Singer in 1963 in "The index of elliptic operators on compact manifolds". Few years later, these authors have given a new proof in "The index of elliptic operators I"...

## Quasi-Experimental Shift-Share Research Designs

Many studies use shift-share (or ``Bartik'') instruments, which average a set of shocks with exposure share weights. We provide a new econometric framework for shift-share instrumental variable (SSIV) regressions in which identification follows from the quasi-random assignment of shocks, while expos...

## Generation, characterisation and intensive laser pulse applications of a few visible optical cycles up to the average infrared

Table of Honour of the Faculty of Higher and Post-doral Studies, 2014-2015 This thesis deals with ultra-fast and intense laser science and technology. A history of this discipline was first presented as an introduction. The laser channel Ti: stabilised sapphire at the stage of Professor Witzel’s lab...