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Automatic learning methods for automatic drum transcritpion
This thesis focuses on learning methods for automatic transcription of the battery. They are based on a transcription algorithm using a non-negative decomposition method, NMD. This thesis raises two main issues: the adaptation of methods to the analyzed signal and the use of deep learning. Taking in...
Hybrids and standards of breeds in dogs: a story of balance
Hypertype in the canine species has been subject to a lot of thoughts and many publications but the novelty of this work is that it associates two complementary points of view, namely the breeder’s and judge’s andvon the other hand the anatomist’s and vet’s. If at shows, the worship of beauty, drive...
Cultivate biodiversity. Seeds and peasant identity
À la suite des crises de surproduction des années 80, puis des crises sanitaires des années 90, le monde agricole a connu une prolifération de mouvements à la recherche de modèles alternatifs au productivisme des trente glorieuses. Certains de ces mouvements ont manifesté une volonté plus forte de r...
Planning the Aquitaine coastline : the heritage of MIACA in the test of time
Territorial planning is changing in practice. It has shifted from a management of land use exclusively conducted by the central government towards a more strategic and partnership-based approach, since the emergence of newly competent authorities in urban planning under the different Decentralizatio...
The architectural services of the State, departments and municipalities in Alsace and Lorraine after their return to France: reorganisation and recruitment (1919-1939)
Pendant la période du Reichsland (1871-1918), les services publics d’architecture qui fonctionnent en Alsace-Lorraine évoluent sous l’influence du modèle allemand. En 1918-1919, le retour de ces territoires à la France est marqué par l’expulsion de la plupart des architectes chefs de service de nati...
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Influence maximization in social networks
In recent years, a large number of social network sites have appeared to connect people and groups together. Networks have been proven to be a good tool to share information and communicate ideas. Influence propagation occurs when an individual’s opinions or behaviors change as a result of interacti...
An Image Retrieval approach based on semantics and visual features
Image retrieval is a very active search area. Several image retrieval approaches that allow mapping between low-level features and high-level semantics have been proposed. Among these, one can cite object recognition, ontologies, and relevance feedback. However, their main limitation concern their h...
Spatial structures in India in the age of globalisation : a data-driven approach
Countries that have experienced a delayed entry within the world economy have usually sustained an enhanced and faster globalisation process. This is the case for BRIC countries which are, compared to other emerging countries, organised on large economies and thus provide a stronger potential market...
Sustainability assessment of biodiesel production in Colombia
Sustainability assessment of biodiesel production is a topic of increasing importance due to the interest of governments to stablish sovereignty strategies, diversify their energy matrix and set up the impact of biofuels production. In this context, this work proposes a system dynamic model to asses...
Analysis and optimisation of efficiency of complex manufacturing networks
This thesis focuses on the analysis and optimal design of manufacturing systems composed of unreliable machinery. The considered systems can operate in an assembly / disassembly structure. Buffer stocks are placed between the machines in order to decouple them from each other. These machines can ope...
Molecular Imaging of Biomarkers in Breast Cancer
Molecular imaging with biomarkers radiolabeled by positron emitters is commonly used in invasive breast cancers for initial staging or restaging, and for assessment of tumor response in neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. After general concepts of breast cancers and of the place of molecular imagin...
Incentive payments for biodiversity conservation : A dynamic and spatial analysis
The objective of this thesis is to study the definition of incentive payments for biodiversity conservation from an empirical and theoretical perspective. In this work, we also aim to account, in a relevant way, for spatial and dynamic ecological processes inherent to terrestrial biodiversity in the...
End-to-end resource management and service quality control with mobility in LTE / LTE-Advanced networks
The technology evolution of Radio Access Network (RAN) in the context of 5th Generation (5G) is not only guided by improving the network performance but also by the need to transform all the technologies into intelligent dynamic ones. The new 5G is a flexible technology that will be able to satisfy...
Open domain question-answering : relevant document selection geared to the question
This thesis aims at defining a unified adaptation of the document selection and answer extraction strategies, based on the document and question types, in a Question-Answering (QA) context. The solution is integrated in RITEL (a LIMSI QA system) to assess the contribution. We develop and investigate...
Rearing practices and early performance of migratory fish for stocking program : study of the critically endangered European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio)
Stocking for conservation purposes is the practice of raising animals in captivity and releasing the min to an area from which the species have either declined or disappeared, in an attempt to enhance the natural population. Fish reared in hatcheries are exposed to selective reproduction, and early...
Ambiguities in selection by competition in the local civil service: unfinished institutionalisation
The process of constructing a civil service in France at the local and regional levels (function publique territoriale) is examined by focusing on selective examinations for recruiting and promoting personnel. The political and administrative rationales are described that have, since the 1970s, inst...
Extracting Knowledge from Macroeconomics, Images and Unreliable Data
System identification and machine learning are two similar concepts independently used in automatic and computer science community. System identification uses statistical methods to build mathematical models of dynamical systems from measured data. Machine learning algorithms build a mathematical mo...
The influence of confidence networks on sexual relations
En postulant que les acteurs attendent une reconnaissance de leur conduite par certains autrui, on peut supposer que les personnes avec lesquelles ils parlent de leur vie affective et sexuelle influencent leur conduite sexuelle. Le chapitre précise a) un modèle d'influence des réseaux véhiculant des...
Microcredit practices in southern countries versus industrialized countries : a theoretical analysis
The objective of this thesis is to contribute, from a theoretical viewpoint, in the understanding of the reasons of the highly publicized success of microcredit in developing countries in order to analyze its efficiency conditions in developed countries. In the first chapter, we seek to identify the...
Outcome of liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma within and beyond Milan criteria
Liver cancer represents the fourth leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Despite being a curative treatment, only 20% of hepatocellular carcinoma patients receive surgical treatment. Selection criteria have been used to select HCC candidate with best oncological outcome for liver tran...
A reference model for the application of ABC during the design of the warehouse activities : an action research at FM Logistic
The logistics service provider (3PL) is reorganizing the activities of its warehouse to be efficient (C.-L. Liu and Lyons 2011). In fact, 3PL needs a detailed knowledge of the cost of the activities of its warehouses. The theoretical framework of this thesis lies at the intersection between warehous...
Sparse precision matrix estimation in high dimension and application to medical imaging : hypothesis testing on some particular graphical models of GLASSO
Our research exploits two main characteristics of the GLASSO model: the sparsity and the monotony. Based on the sparsity of this model, we propose to adapt the linear discriminant analysis method (LDA) in high dimension by using a sparse estimated precision matrix on the whole population. In order t...
Statistical contributions to the study of live kinetics: application to infusion and malaria
Our work is a contribution to the development of statistical methods to assist in the understanding of two biological quantifiable phenomena through data from medical examinations. The first of these two biological phenomena is microcirculation in the general bloodstream system, the second is the se...
The paradoxes of a programme of social openness: the Priority Education Conventions at Sciences Po
Cet article vise à interroger les fondements et les effets du modèle de justice sociale promu par le concours Convention Éducation prioritaire (CEP) de Sciences Po Paris. Il s’appuie sur les bases de données du service de la scolarité de Sciences Po, des entretiens avec des candidats et jurés et une...
Probiotics and autophagy : exploring the possible impact on Crohn's disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including the two main types, Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic, relapsing inflammation of the gut mucosa with considerable impact on the quality of life. At present, the therapeutic management of CD is not curative and on...